It can be closed or penetrating. The most common closed heart trauma is the cardiac contusion. It can be associated with arrhythmias, valvular or interventricular septum lesions and in worst cases with cardiac rupture. Based on the findings the treatment of these lesions ranges from clinical observation to emergent heart surgery with extracorporeal circulation.
The most common penetrating traumas are gunshot and stab injuries. Most of the patients with these injuries die prior to their arrival to the hospital. In these cases surgery is needed to stop the bleeding and repair the lesions.